final year engineering projects

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JJ TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS provides one-on-one coaching and mentoring to Mechanical Engineering project students to help them complete a state of the art Engineering Major/Minor project for B.Tech/M.Tech/Diploma courses, thereby assuring high marks and a good job.


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...STRIVING FOR EXCELLENCE... 

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2. CONCEPT OF PRESSURE

Absolute Vacuum

​​​​What is Thermodynamics? basic thermodynamics. basic mechanical engineering
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat, work and the other forms of energy. Thermodynamics describes how one form of energy (mainly thermal energy) is converted to and from other forms of energy and how it affects matter.


Laws of Thermodynamics:
There are four laws of thermodynamics. They are:

Zeroth law of thermodynamics:If a body A is in thermal equilibrium with a body B and the body B is in thermal equilibrium with a body C then the body A is in thermal equilibrium with the body C. i.e.









If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics deals with thermal equilibrium and defines the concept of temperature.

First law of thermodynamics:When a system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle then the net heat supplied to the system from the surrounding is equal to the sum of the net work done by the system to the surrounding and the increase in its internal energy.
                                                                                                  dQ = dU + dW
                                                        Heat supplied = Increase in internal Energy + Work done on surrounding
First law of thermodynamics provides a basis to study the relationship between various forms of energy and energy interactions. It implies that Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only change forms.


Second law of thermodynamics: The second law of thermodynamics can be stated using Clausius OR Kelvin-Planck statements. Each statement is based on an irreversible process.

Clausius statement:
 “It is impossible for a self acting machine working in a cyclic process without any external force, to transfer heat from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature. It considers transformation of heat between two heat reservoirs.”

Kelvin – Planck statement:

“It is impossible to construct an engine, which while operating in a cycle produces no other effect except to extract heat from a single reservoir and do an equivalent amount of work.”
It considers the transformation of heat into work and defines the concept of entropy.


Third law of thermodynamics: As temperature approaches absolute zero (−273.15°C, 0 K), the entropy of a system approaches a constant minimum. The value of the entropy is usually 0 at 0K, however there are some cases where there is still a small amount of residual entropy in the system.
Also, the temperature of a body cannot be reduced to absolute zero in finite number of steps.

THERMODYNAMICS

Pressure is defined as the force per unit area.

                                                                                       P = F/A, (N/m2)
In general during analysis one comes across the following four types of pressure,
(i) Atmospheric pressure (ii) Absolute pressure (iii) Gauge pressure (iv) Vacuum pressure
Atmospheric pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by the atmosphere. It is said to be equal to 760 mm of mercury and has magnitude of 1.013 bar (= 1.013 × 105 N/m2). The instrument used for measuring this pressure is called barometer or the Bourdon tube. Italian scientist Torricelli was first to construct the barometer to measure the pressure. In his honour the pressure exerted by one millimeter column of mercury under atmospheric conditions is known as ‘Torr’ (1 atm = 760 Torr). Absolute pressure of gas refers to the actual pressure of the gas. 

Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure

1. LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

Density which refers to the mass per unit volume is the ratio of mass to volume occupied. Its units are kg/m3. Density = (Mass/Volume) 


The specific volume is the volume per unit mass of the substance. It is defined by ratio of the volume occupied and the mass of substance. Its units are m3/kg. Specific volume = (Volume/Mass) 


Weight is actually the force due to gravity acting on any substance. Thus, it is the product of mass and gravitational acceleration. Its units are Newtons. Weight = (mass × gravitational acceleration)


Specific weight of a substance is the ratio of weight of substance and volume of substance. Specific weight = (Weight/Volume)= (density × gravitational acceleration)

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the density of any substance and standard density of some reference substance (water at 4 degree C) . For solids and liquids the water density at some specified temperature say 0 degree C or 4 degree C is taken as standard density. 

final year engineering projects

Mechanical Engineering

FINAL YEAR ENGINEERING PROJECTS...

  • Automobile

  • Aerospace

  • Heat Transfer

  • Fluid Flow

  • Structures (CAD/FEA)

  • Mechanical Engineering Basics

  • Design and Analysis....     to name a few


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​​Our Instructors


All JJ TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS instructors are having wide and specialised knowledge in various branches of Engineering. We train our students to prepare them not only for graduation assessment but also in how to use your project to secure a job or higher study seat through a great interview presentation.


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